Contract Research

Contract Research Services

Mycoplasma Biosafety offers not only high-quality mycoplasma testing, validation and consultancy services. We are also offering to be a competent partner and collaborator in cutting-edge contract research projects.

We offer State-of-the-Art Technologies

  • for regulatory in-process control and lot release mycoplasma testing and test validations
  • for rapid mycoplasma testing as "early-warning-system“ enabling same-day results
  • for root-cause analysis, process validation and risk mitigation
  • for mycoplasma genetic manipulation and construction of tailored mycoplasma strains and antigens towards development of new serodiagnostic assays and next-generation veterinary vaccines

Mycoplasma Biosafety is proud to have with Prof. Renate Rosengarten and its key employees academic roots which are associated with the former Institute of Bacteriology, Mycology and Hygiene, a mycoplasma competence center at the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna.

We are striving to maintain close contacts to academia and the researching industry and to foster the regular contact and interactions with colleagues involved in mycoplasma research to expand our knowledge and to stay up-to-date on the latest findings and developments what allows us to drive innovation in Mycoplasmology.

The consequent advantages for our research partners and clients are obvious:

  • long-standing experience in planning, setting up and executing cutting-edge research projects
  • design and implementation of contract research based on state-of-the-art techniques and know-how
  • assurance to obtain results and provide conclusions according to the current up-to-date knowledge and the latest findings in mycoplasma research

Whether it is about ideas for novel products for the detection or elimination of mycoplasmas, for innovative methods for development of new detection assays, for custom-made high-yield production media, or for mycoplasma strains and derivative clones for next-generation veterinary vaccines - Mycoplasma Biosafety can provide the necessary support to transform these ideas into a successful contract research project.

Please contact us:  for further information if you have any enquiries.


Mycoplasma Research Expertise

Please use the links below to view selected key publications about topics in the areas of Basic, Applied and Industrial Mycoplasmology, to which our mycoplasma experts have contributed.


The Significance of Mycoplasmas as Infectious Agents & Pathogens

Rosengarten, R., C. Citti, P. Much, J. Spergser, M. Droesse, and M. Hewicker-Trautwein. 2001. The changing image of mycoplasmas: from innocent bystanders to emerging and reemerging pathogens in human and animal diseases. In: I. Mühldorfer, and K.P. Schäfer (ed.), Emerging Bacterial Pathogens, Contributions to Microbiology, Vol. 8,  S. Karger, Basel, pp. 166-185. Link

Rosengarten, R., C. Citti, M. Glew, A. Lischewski, M. Droesse, P. Much, F. Winner, M. Brank, and J. Spergser. 2000. Host pathogen interactions in mycoplasma pathogenesis: Virulence and survival strategies of minimal prokaryotes. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 290: 15-25. Link


Mycoplasma Cytdherence & Cell Invasion

Indiková, I, P. Much, L. Stipkovits, K. Siebert-Gulle, M.P. Szostak, R. Rosengarten, and C. Citti. 2013. Role of the GapA and CrmA cytadhesins of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in promoting virulence and host colonization. Infect. Immun. 81: 1618-1624. Link

Vogl, G., A. Plaickner, S. Szathmary, L. Stipkovits, R. Rosengarten, and M.P. Szostak. 2008. Mycoplasma gallisepticum invades chicken erythrocytes during infection. Infect. Immun. 76: 71-77. Link []

Citti, C., G.F. Browning, and R. Rosengarten. 2005. Phenotypic diversity and cell invasion in host subversion by pathogenic mycoplasmas, pp. 439-483. In: A. Blanchard, and G.F. Browning (ed.), Mycoplasmas: Pathogenesis, Molecular Biology, and Emerging Strategies for Control“. Horizon Scientific Press. (COVER Chapter) Link

Winner F., I. Markova, P. Much, A. Lugmair, K. Siebert-Gulle, G. Vogl, R. Rosengarten, and C. Citti. 2003. Phenotypic switching in Mycoplasma gallisepticum hemadsorption is governed by a high frequency, reversible point mutation. Infect. Immun. 71: 1265-1273. Link []

Much P., F. Winner, L. Stipkovits, R. Rosengarten, and C. Citti. 2002. Mycoplasma gallisepticum: influence of cell invasiveness on the outcome of experimental infection in chickens. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 34: 181-186. Link

Winner, F., R. Rosengarten, and C. Citti. 2000. In vitro cell invasion of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Infect. Immun. 68: 4238-1244. Link


Mycoplasma Testing & Mycoplasma Reference Standards

Nübling, M.C., S. A. Baylis, K.-M. Hanschmann, T. Montag-Lessing, M. Chudy, J. Kreß, U. Ulrych, S. Czurda, R. Rosengarten, and the Mycoplasma Collaborative Study Group. 2015. World Health Organization International Standard to harmonize assays for detection of mycoplasma DNA. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 81: 5694-5702. Link

Hanschmann, K.M., T. Montag-Lessing, S.A.  Baylis, M. Chudy, J. Kreß, U. Ulrych, S. Czurda, R. Rosengarten, and C.M. Nübling. 2013. Collaborative study to establish the 1st World Health Organization International Standard for mycoplasma DNA for nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-based assays.  WHO Report 2013, WHO/BS/2013.2222. Link

PDA Mycoplasma Task Force. 2010. Alternative Methods for Mycoplasma Testing. PDA Technical Report No. 50. Parenteral Drug Association, Inc. Link


Mycoplasma Species Identification & Strain Typing

Spergser, J., K. Macher, M. Kargl, I. Lysnyansky, and R. Rosengarten. 2013. Emergence, re-emergence, spread and host species crossing of Mycoplasma bovis in the Austrian Alps caused by a single endemic strain. Vet. Microbiol. 164: 299-306. Link

McAuliffe, L., F. Gosney, M. Hlusek, M.L. de Garnica, J. Spergser, M. Kargl, R. Rosengarten,  R.D. Ayling, R.A. Nicholas, and R.J. Ellis. 2011. Multi locus sequence typing of Mycoplasma agalactiae. J. Med. Microbiol. 60: 803-811. Link


Rosengarten, R., and D. Yogev. 1996. Variant colony surface antigenic phenotypes within mycoplasma populations: implications for species identification and strain standardization. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 149-158.  Link


Mycoplasma  Antigens & Surface Antigen Variation

Chopra-Dewasthaly, R., M. Baumgartner, E. Gamper, C. Innerebner, M. Zimmermann, F. Schilcher, A. Tichy, P. Winter, W. Jechlinger, R. Rosengarten, and J. Spergser. 2012. Role of Vpma phase variation in Mycoplasma agalactiae pathogenesis. FEMS Immunol. Med Microbiol. 66:307-322. Link

Zimmerman, C.-U. R., R. Rosengarten, and J. Spergser. 2011. Ureaplasma antigenic variation beyond MBA phase variation: DNA inversions generating chimeric structures and switching in expression of the MBA N-terminal paralog UU172. Mol. Microbiol. 79: 663-676. Link

Zimmerman, C.-U., T. Stiedl, R. Rosengarten, and J. Spergser. 2009. Alternate phase variation in expression of two major surface membrane proteins (MBA and UU376) of Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 292: 187-193. Link

Glew M. D., M. Marenda, R. Rosengarten, and C. Citti. 2002. Surface diversity in Mycoplasma agalactiae is driven by site-specific DNA inversions within the vpma multigene locus. J. Bacteriol. 184: 5987-5998. Link

Glew, M.D., Papazisi, L., F. Poumarat, D. Bergonier, R. Rosengarten, and C. Citti. 2000. Characterization of a multigene family undergoing high frequency DNA rearrangements and coding for abundant variable surface proteins in Mycoplasma agalactiae. Infect. Immun. 68: 4539-4539. Link


Mycoplasma Genetic Manipulation

Nieszner, I., Vronka, M., Indikova, I, and M.P. Szostak.2013. Development of a site-directed integration plasmid for heterologous gene expression in Mycoplasma gallisepticum. PLoS One. Nov 20;8(11):e81481. Link

Czurda, S., W. Jechlinger, R. Rosengarten, and R. Chopra-Dewasthaly. 2010. Xer1-mediated site-specific DNA inversions and excisions in Mycoplasma agalactiae. J. Bacteriol. 192: 4462-4473. Link

Chopra-Dewasthaly, R., C. Citti, M.D. Glew, M. Zimmermann, R. Rosengarten, and W. Jechlinger. 2008. Phase-locked mutants of Mycoplasma agalactiae: Defining the molecular switch of high-frequency Vpma antigenic variation. Mol. Microbiol. 67: 1196-1210. Link

Chopra-Dewasthaly, R., M. Zimmermann, R. Rosengarten, and C. Citti. 2005. First steps towards the genetic manipulation of Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis using the transposon Tn4001mod. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 294: 447-453. Link

Chopra-Dewasthaly, R., M. Marenda, R. Rosengarten, W. Jechlinger, and C. Citti 2005. Construction of the first shuttle vectors for gene cloning and homologous recombination in Mycoplasma agalactiae. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 253: 89-94. Link


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